名词性从句知识汇总,考点考法、解题步骤、典型例题都有!


给大家整理的这篇文章便是英语语法方面的知识——名词性从句,考点、考法、解题步骤、典型例题都有!


名词性从句知识点汇总

一、名词性从句的分类

名词性从句,包括四种从句,即主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。因为主语、宾语、表语、同位语这四种成分均可以由名词构成,所以这四种从句在主句中都充当了名词的作用,故将这四种从句统称为名词性从句。如: 


1.That she will help me made us happy.(主语从句) 
2.I can understand what he said.(宾语从句) 
3.This is where I was born.(表语从句) 
4.The fact that a heavy earthquake happened made me crazy.(同位語从句) 

二、名词性从句的连接词分类

1.that(无含义,不充当成分)

2.whether,if(有“是否”的含义,但不充当成分)

3.连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever.(在从句中做主语、宾语、表语和定语)连接副词:when, whenever, where, wherever, how, however, why (在从句中做状语)

4. as if,as though,because(不充当成分,在名词性从句中只引导表语从句)

三、连接词that在名词性从句中可以省略的三种情况

1.it 做形式主语,that引导主语从句时

It is said (that) he has been studying abroad.

据说他一直在国外学习。

2.动词宾语从句中

I think(that) you have much to improve in English.我认为你的英语需要提高的有很多。

3.形容词宾语从句中

I am afraid (that) I will be late.恐怕我要迟到了。

四、同位语从句和定语从句的区别

that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。


试比较下面两个例句:

(1)I had no idea that you were here.我不知道你在这里。

that无含义,that you were here 指的就是idea,所以是同位语从句,不能省略that


(2)Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you?这本书给了你想法吗?

that指的是the idea,that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略

名词性从句如何考察

名词性从句在高考中考查的频率很高。有关于名词性从句的试题,一般出现在完形填空、语法填空和短文改错这三大题型中,对名词性从句的考查主要集中在引导词的选择和名词性从句的时态、语态上。 


1.考查名词性从句的引导词,通常都是在无提示型的试题中,即试题只给出空格而不给提示词,让考生填入恰当的引导词。 


例1·语法填空:I didn’t understand why this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation. 此题考查why引导的宾语从句。 


例2·完形填空:But every day, we would sit by the lake, looking at the house and dreaming of what it would be like to live there. 此题考查what引导的宾语从句。 


例3·短文改错:After looking at the toy for some time, he turned around and found where his parents were missing. 此句中,正确答案为:去掉where,或把where改为that。(that) his parents were missing是一个宾语从句。 


2.考查名词性从句的时态、语态,通常出现在语法填空和短文改错这两大题型中。 


例4·短文改错:Do you want to know why we move last week? 此句中,正确答案为:把move改为moved。why we moved last week是一个宾语从句,当名词性从句的主句是一般现在时时,从句本身的时态不变。


例5·语法填空:He sold or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearby for other food and made cheese and butter for the family with what was left (leave). 此句中,what was left是一个宾语从句,作介词with的宾语。因为主句是一般过去时,所以宾语从句也要用一般过去时。 

名词性从句解题三步骤

有关名词性从句的试题通常都没有给出提示词。在题目没有给出提示词的情况下,考生要学会自己分析句子的结构和意思,从而推理出一个正确的名词性从句。

 

STEP 1:划分句子成分,找出名词性从句。 


例6·语法填空:As natural (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.此句的主语是the Pueblo Indians,谓语动词是figured out, thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days是一个宾语从句。 


STEP 2:根据句意,将STEP 1中划分出的名词性从句的意思翻译出来,并将其还原成一个原始的句子。该原始的句子可以是陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句。 

以例6为例。根据句意,此例中划分出的名词性从句的意思应该为:这些土坯墙需要很厚,才能保证这个热循环持久有效。把该名词性从句还原成一个原始的句子,“这些土坯墙需要有多厚”应该是一个特殊疑问句,即“How thick did the adobe walls need to be?” 


STEP 3:根据名词性从句的规则(考虑引导词、时态、陈述句语序),写出一个正确的名词性从句。

 
仍然以例6为例。在STEP 2中,考生根据句子结构和句子意思,还原出了一个原始的句子——How thick did the adobe walls need to be,现在考生要根据名词性从句的基本规则(考虑引导词、时态、陈述句语序),写出一个正确的名词性从句:How thick the adobe walls needed to be。所以,例6空格的正确答案为“how”。

名词性从句规律总结

要想写出正确的名词性从句,考生必须了解名词性从句的基本规则。

一、引导词 

1.若原句是一个陈述句,则变名词性从句后的引导词为that。 


例7·短文改错:If you notice that when someone is missing or hurt, tell your teacher immediately. 此句中,正确的答案为:去掉when。因为宾语从句someone is missing or hurt是一个陈述句,所以此宾语从句的引导词为that。


2.若原句是一个一般疑问句,名词性从句后的引导词为if/ whether。值得考生注意的是,有些情况不能用if,只能用whether。比如说主语从句置于句首,介词后的宾语从句,宾语从句中有or not等。 


例8·高考改编题:the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. 此题空格的正确答案为“whether”。 the delayed flight will take off是一个主语从句,意思为:这趟延误的航班是否会起飞?该句是一个一般疑问句,变为主语从句后应该用if/whether来引导。又因为该主语从句置于句首,故只能用whether。

 
3.若原句是一个特殊疑问句,则名词性从句后的引导词为wh-特殊疑问词。 


例9·完形填空:Your support is important to our work. What-ever you can do helps.在此句中,whatever引导一个主语从句。 


例10·完形填空:When I handed him the gift card, saying he could use it for whatever his family might need, he burst into tears. 在此句中,whatever引導一个宾语从句。 


例11·短文改错:This is which other students say. 此题的正确答案为:把which变为what。在此句中,what引导一个表语从句。 


例12·短文改错:My uncle is the owner of a resta-urant close to that I live. 此题的正确答案为:把that变为where。在此句中,where引导一个宾语从句。 

二、时态 

若主句是一般现在时,则名词性从句本身的时态不变;若主句是一般过去时,则名词性从句的时态变为相应的过去时态。 


例13·短文改错:I thought that it is a good idea. It does not cost much, yet we can still learn a lot.此题的正确答案为:把thought改为think。在此句中,that引导的宾语从句是一般现在时,而主句却是一般过去时。因为主句的时态和从句的时态不一致,所以该句的时态肯定有问题。从句子所在的上下文来看,该句的主句应该使用一般现在时。 

三、陈述句语序 

名词性从句,必须使用陈述句语序。 


例14·短文改错改编题:Where do you suggest should I go? 此题的正确答案为:去掉should。where should I go是一个宾语从句,做suggest的宾语,因为名词性从句要用陈述句语序,所以此句的正确说法为:Where do you suggest I (should) go? 

挑战一下吧

1.【选择题】So we went over and told the flower seller____we wanted. 
A. which B. when C. what D. whether 


2.【完形填空】The American dream I believe in now is shared one. It’s not so much about what I can get for myself, it’s about____we can all get by together. 
A. when B. what C. whether D. how


3.【短文改错】How do you think I should do?


4.【短文改错】This is which other teachers say. 


5.【完形填空】It is often the case anything____is possible for those who hand on to hope. 
A.why B. what C. as D. that 


参考答案: 
1.本句的意思为:我走上前去,并且告诉那个卖花人我们想要的东西。what引导一个宾语从句。正确答案为:what
2.本句的意思为:我现在信仰的美国梦是一个共同的梦,它不意味着我们能够得到什么,而是意味着我们如何团结起来共同渡过难关。how引导一个宾语从句。正确答案为:how
3.把how改为what。本句的意思为:你认为我应该做什么?what引导一个宾语从句
4.把which改为what。本句的意思为:这就是其他老师说的话。what引导一个表语从句
5.that引导同位语从句,正确答案为that



❂ 好文推荐


独家资料学习方法应试技巧政策新闻励志文章物理君说


高中物理高中数学高中英语初中物理初中数学初中英语


(文章转自网络,因无法查询出处无法标注来源,如有侵权,请联系管理员删除。)


物理君微信公众平台 


专注于中学的物理学习,与你一起成长

微信公众号:wulijun150

 物理君QQ号:2940725412

QQ群(初中):204037014

 (高中三部):192028457

        家长群:371265727





如有事情需要联系我们,请发送邮件到:lianxi@wmqn.net